應外交部委託「國際土地政策研究訓練中心」(International Center for Land Policy Studies and Training)的「全球化下的永續都市發展」研討班之邀，石計生教授將於九月十二日(星期一)下午兩點至五點，至該中心以「全球化下的政府角色」(The Government’s Role in Globalization)為題，發表專題演講。
The Government’s Role in Globalization
C.S. Stone SHIH
Associate Professor, Department of Sociology
Soochow University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Sep. 12, 2005
Lecture at the International Center for Land Policy
Studies and Training, Taoyuan City, Taiwan
＊The squeezing from more assertive global and private governance structures has created a hard time for the conventional form of public governance—regional and local governments—that are fixated to territorially bounded and functionally independent administrative entities.
＊ How the government responses to the global shift and impact? Is there still a ‘strong state’ to complete the policy-making by itself? Or is there a policy network of public and private actors? Or is there in fact a declining authority of state? That would be the key issue for elaborating the theoretical approaches in this lecture.
2.Globalization, Anti-globalization and Localization
＊Globalization : Although there are many different views of point, following the theory of Castells(1997), I would say globalization began in the 1970s, the era that emerged the micro-electronics, computer, electronic communication/broadcasting, television, genetic engineering, and the sign digitalized technology. To make the definition of globalization simple and clear, we can say that globalization is a boundary-expanding process in an information society.
＊What Elements Cross-Borders: There are six elements, including people, commodity, information, capital, value and behavior patterns, may be cross-border and flows into other places. As for the types of boundary, one is so called geographic boundary. It is a boundary limited by geography, such as country, county, region boundary etc. The other I may name it the super-geographic boundary. It is a boundary that geography fails to limit, such as internet, e-mail, and MSN etc.
＊Anti-globalization: The standardized and normative power of globalization gradually erodes the traditional convention of places when the boundary-expanding process occurs in the world. The reaction to resist the ‘invasion’ of globalization means anti-globalization.
＊Localization: A boundary-heightening process for protecting the local through local actor, group, community, local state, and institution. The boundary-heightening process may be radical or moderate in terms of the resisting or incorporate into globalization.
3. State Capacity in Globalization
＊State Capacity: As for the government’s role in globalization, it refers to the discussion of state capacity in information society which including the surveillance of people, governing civic society, controlling economic activity and information flow, adjusting ability in facing cross-border trade etc.
＊The Erosion of State Capacity in Globalization: But nation state, used to be the only and dominant actor for social time and space in a country, now is gradually weakened by global flows of capital, goods, service, and information. Challenging by multiple identities in the global age, the state eventually has to incorporate into the global and decentralize his power to the local for claiming the political legitimacy. It is clear to see that the ideology of nation state is falling apart in the competition of global Capitalism.
＊Weakened State Capacity in a Country: the declining authority of state is in three parts(Strange):
(a) social security: for protecting the country away from violence or terrorism. The global flows of people, goods and information make the security difficult to realize in reality;
(b) financial institution: as a reliable way of unit of exchange profit and value and build up a free market. Again, the global flows of information and capital in computer make the digitalize exchange easy to be attached by cross-border business broker or hacker;
(c) social welfare: the government fails to take care of the powerless or minority in the country in facing the market in globalization.
＊Weakened State Capacity Between Countries: globalization also changes the government’s role between countries. Globalization, the cross-border dynamics of people, goods, capital and information, eventually creates a new geography of power.
(a) globalization will locate at some real territory and create special mechanism (i.e., global city: spatial dispersed and control concentration)and process which are not recognized by traditional nation state; The rise of global cities (Sassen), such as London, Tokyo, New York, create a new modern economic space of spatial disperse and global integration. We may see those headquarters of multi-national enterprises aggregate in the global cities and the factors, branches spatial disperse in the Asian countries or the third world.
(b) globalization may cause new law system (i.e., deregulations)for managing complicate cross-border economic activity; One of the key issues is the discussion of deregulation of a country’s economic activity. State must have legal innovation subjectively or objectively for facing global spatial transformation. Some scholars think the deregulation, the change of law, may cause the partial lose of state sovereignty. For example, the condition for Taiwan to be WTO member is to change the domestic law for allowing foreign wine, cigarette, and agricultural product to import with low tax rate.
(c) globalization would create high speed economic exchange in electronic space which extend the geographic boundary very easily. Speed/ virtualization of economic space is a new variable for world trade in the global era. No individual or country could control technology or product but professionalize or incorporate by the practice of global control.
＊The Fourth World, The Problems of Globalization: The government in a state is further weakened for the global network might detour from the state’s institutional control and create uneven development or poverty inside a country. But there is more than inequality and poverty in this process of social restructuring. There is also exclusion of people and territories which, from the perspective of dominant interests in global, information capitalism, shift to a position of structural irrelevance. This widespread, multiform process of social exclusion leads to the black holes of informational capitalism. A new world, the Fourth World, has emerged, made up of multiple black holes of social exclusion through the planet. The Fourth World comprises large areas of the globe, such as much of Sub-Saharan Africa, and impoverished rural areas of Latin America and Asia. But is also present in literally every country, every city, in this new geography of social exclusion. In the current historical context, the rise of the Fourth World is inseparable from the rise of informational, global capitalism.
4. Global Governance: The Positive Role of Government in Globalization
＊ SOAs: After 1970s, the era of globalization, the sovereignty has further been re-constructed. The world now is not so much a system dominated by states and national governments as a congeries of spheres of authority (SOAs) that are subject considerable flux and not necessarily coterminous with the division of territorial space(Rosenau). The traditional state authority is partially replaced by the SOAs. The SOAs, the sovereignty-free actors of the multi-centric world consist of multinational corporations, ethnic minorities, subnational governments and bureaucracies, professional societies, social movements, political parties, transnational organizations, and the like.
＊The rise of Global Governance: New forms of multilateral and global politics have been established involving governments, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and a wide variety of transnational pressure groups and international non-government organizations (INGOs). Global governance, as Rosenau (2002) has shown, thus, is a global association in which the SOAs, including citizens, enterprises, advocacy group, communities, private interest and the state, organize to influence the conduct and content of global governance.
＊ The Models of Global Governance
(1)top-down governance: the government of nation state leads and also cooperates with the profit-oriented multi-national enterprises, and the international government organizations.
(2)network governance: without clear direction of association, the driving force of this model is from specific issues that bring all powers, including the government of nation state, international government organizations, and multi-national non-profit organizations, into agreement for cooperation.
(3) market governance: with clear profit-making purposes and mixture of official and unofficial structure, the model is a type of governance-by-market.
(4)mobius-web governance: with multiple-purposes and directions and mixture of official and unofficial structure, the model is like a mobius band (The Möbius band), without begin and end, non-orientable, overlapping structure of multiple power actors.
＊Conclusion: Today, the state-centric world is no longer predominant. Due to the skill revolution, the worldwide spread of authority crisis, it has undergone a bifurcation of global structure. i.e., State-centric v.s. Multi-centric
＊We argue that the necessity to consider the global governance, the positive role of government in globalization. I point out that there are four types of positive global governance for the state in today: top-down, network, market, and mobius-web governance.
＊The rise of networks forms of organization means that power is migrating to diverse, small, non-state actors (i.e., SOAs)who can organize into sprawling networks more readily than can traditionally hierarchical nation-state actors.
＊It means that whoever masters the network form stands to gain major advantages in the new epoch, including the government itself.
＊Could global governance possible if there is no fundamental change of the US hegemony? Is international governance, as with globalization, is thus little more than a process of the Americanization of world order? With these doubt in mind, the government, associated with the SOAs, may have chance to contribute his power to make the country and the world a better one through global governance.
Name Designation/Office & Education Country
1.Mr.Roberto Alejandro Pasos
Associate in Business Administration,
Corozal Junior College Belize
Senior Staff Member
Ministry of Finances and Budget
Master in Economic Sciences,
Ouagadougou Burkina Faso
3.Mr.Klamong Sou Nguetour
Ministry of Territory Management,
Urbanism and Habitat
City Development Specialist –
Social Geographer, Environmentalist
City Development Authority of Prague
Ph. D. in Social Geography,
Charles University, Prague Czech Republic
5.Mr.Hector Antonio Velez Andrade
Subsecretario de Ordenamiento Territorial
Ministerio de Desarrollo Urbano y Vivienda
Diplomado in Foods de Infeccion, I
NHEM, Cuba Ecuador
6.Miss Ana Luisa Roque Valdovinos
Land Development Specialist
Viceministerio de Vivienda y Desarrollo
Urbano, Ministerio de Obras Publicas
Master in Environmental Administration,
UCA, El Salvador El Salvador
7.MissLigia Maria Perez Reyes
Oficina de Planificacion del Area
Metropolitana de San Salvador (Planning Office)
Master in Urban Planning,
University of Maryland El Salvador
Principal Physical Planning Officer
Department of State for Local Government and Lands
Diploma in Town Planning,
Polytechnic The Gambia
Senior Staff/Head of Profit Center
The Habibie Center
Master in Engineering Science,
UNSW, Sydney Indonesia
10.Mr. Atef Al Awashreh
Majoring in administration at Irbid College Jordan
Ereata Director of Lands
Bachelor in Land Surveying, Unitech, Lae PNG Kiribati
Head of City Development Division
Poznan City Hall
Master in Agriculture, Poznan University Poland
CEO Tomsk Technology Transfer Center
Engineer, Tomsk State University Russian Federation
14.Mr.Alister Calvert Browne
Senior Technical Officer/Architect
Government of St. Vincent & the Grenadines
Bachelor in Architecture/Engineering,
Camaguey, Cuba Saint Vincent & the Grenadines
15.Mr.Cesaltino Vincente Vaz Fernande
Assistant for the Urban and Planning Land Area
Ministry of Infrastructure
Post Graduate in Urban Planning
and Environment Law, Coimbra University
Sao Tome and Principe
Division Chief Experimental Center
of Research and Equipment
Docteur, Institute des Sciences de la Terre Senegal
17.Mr. Malick Thiao
Ministry of Town Planning and Architecture
Diplome in Land Planning, Ecole
National Horticulture Senegal
18.Mr.Harry Anisitulo Waitara
Senior Physical Planner
Department of Lands and Survey
Diploma in Town Planning, University
of South Pacific Solomon Islands
19.Mr.Thulani Edmund Mkhaliphi
Director of Urban Government
Master in Development Management
/Economic Policy, WITS University Swaziland
20.Mr. Apichart Chomboon
City Planner Department of Public Work,
Town and Country Planning
Bachelor in architecture, Chulalongkorn U
niversity, Thailand Thailand
Assistant Planning Expert
Prime Ministry, State Planning Organization
Master in Geographic Information
Technologies, Middle East
Technical University Turkey
22.Mr.Vicent Kim-thong Wang
Department of Urban Development,
Taipei City Government
Master in Architecture, Chung-Yuan
Christian University, ROC ROC
Planning Agency, Ministry of the Interior
Bachelor in Urban Planning,
Feng Chia University, ROC ROC